Conservation index

Principles of resource management, conservation and biodiversity

By Dr J Floor Anthoni (2001)
One hundred years ago, the word conservation needed to be invented, but as humans reached the limits of exploitation, and the natural (inhuman) world shrunk to less than half of what once was there, problems have appeared at an ever faster rate. Today, conservation is the hottest topic, about which many people have different ideas. In the future, conservation and ecology may well become the largest issues known to mankind, also usurping vasts amounts of money and resources. In this section you'll learn step by step the why, what and how of conservation, with an emphasis on the oceans, which after all, are our largest environment. This section records truthfully the follies committed by so many in an era where honesty is so important to arrive at the right conclusions. We owe it to our children!
introduction An introduction to the issues raised in this section. (located on this page) (10 pages)
When people exploit minerals and nature's products, they become resources. One can distinguish various types of resource, according to their characteristics. Management of a resource hopes to minimise environmental damage, and if possible, achieve sustainability. Read about substance, resilience, reserves, economy of exploitation, management, tragedy of the commons, problem solving and more. (26 pages)
biodiversity Biodiversity is Nature's answer towards populating this planet optimally, with maximum resilience to outside influences.  Read about the various aspects of biodiversity, ecosystems services, extinctions, measuring biodiversity, taxonomy, how to protect biodiversity, differences between land and sea, the effects of scarcity, and more. (30 pages)
The conservation of nature embodies all our actions to mitigate our wrongdoings. Read about conservation biology, strategies, dilemmas and obstacles. Conserving a species, a spot, a habitat, an activity. Spiritual dimensions of conservation. Also learn how the sea differs from the land (30 pages)
marine mammals
Marine mammals protection has advanced over the years by international conventions and marine mammal reserves. It is a highly politicised subject with untold many myths and fallacies. (postponed)
A look at threats to the marine environment. Objectives of marine conservation. Perceived benefits of marine reserves and discussion of these. What marine reserves don't do. What they do best. Principles for their location. Spillout quantified. Larval dispersal. How reserves fail. (33 pages)
  • Target sizes for marine reserves derived from computer models. Also fisherman's perspectives. (9 pages)
  • IUCN (WCN) MPA categories and what these mean for New Zealand. (7 pages)
  • EcoSystem-Based fisheries management (ESB) hopes to reduce the risks from fishing. (18 pages) 
  • lessons 
    from Leigh
    The Goat Island marine reserve in Leigh is New Zealand's first. Established in 1977 and visited by over one hundred thousand people each year, it has taught us some valuable lessons, how marine reserves can fail and what we do wrong. Many pictures. (23 pages)
    marine degradation
    Why are seas everywhere in the world sick? What is marine degradation and how does it work? Why is it accelerating so fast right now? What symptoms accompany it? How can it be measured? (25p)
  • timeline of degradation events in New Zealand.
  • symptoms of decay, with examples (large)
  • legislation Because conservation is about changing human behaviour, legislation is indispensable. But is it the best way? This article summarises NZ and international legislation. (postponed)
    myths and fallacies FAQs Frequently Asked Questions and answers about marine conservation and marine reserves. Honest and incisive. A must-read. (25 pages)
    Myths and Fallacies in speeches and newspaper articles and more nonsense in the marine reserve debate (large and growing).
    Science exposed: the myths and mistakes in recent marine ecological scientific research. For the challenged few.
    The war for marine reserves: the NZ Government and governments elsewhere are clamouring for marine reserves at any cost, even though these have proved not to protect the environment. What's going on? Important reading. (large)
    related pages
    on this web site
    Read the important section on degradation with many photographic examples. Also follow the many threats and issues and a summary of threats to the environment and people.
    Visit the section on ecology to learn more about environmental processes, populations, etc. (planned)
    Marine reserves of New Zealand: marine reserves index. Details of each. (large section)
    Introduction to marine habitats; physical factors, terminology, etc. (15 pages)
    Biorealms of the Earth: a summary of features that characterise fresh water, land, sea, soil. (4 pages) 
    From hunter to caretaker: an article about marine conservation, containing the essence of these chapters, and with discussion points at the end (19 pages)
    The red data book of New Zealand: a damning list of disappeared and disappearing animals. (8 pages)

    Summary of global threats: read what we are doing to your life, the air, land , sea and soil. (18 pages)
    Science, technology and human nature: a critical look at three perpetrators or saviours? (32 pages)
    Timetables of mankind: the evolution of knowledge and invention. The rise of civilisation. (23 pages)
    Belief systems of the world: how people surrender their logic and reason. (22 pages)

    Soil: fertility, sustainability, erosion and conservation. (large section)
    Disappearing beaches: how and why beaches are threatened and what to do to protect them. (large section)

    NZ Marine Reserves act 1971 updated to 1996.  (16 pages)
    NZ Marine Reserves Act 1971mra71.htm. (13 pages) 
    NZ Marine Reserves Bill 2002. A summary of its objectives. (8 pages)
    Seafriends' submission on the Marine Reserves Bill 2002. (6 pages)
    NZ Resource Management Act and discussion: rma.htm. ( pages) (in prep)
    Transcript of speaches during the opening of the Goat Island Marine Reserve. (14 pages)
    Transcript of stakeholders' voices after 25 years of the Goat Island marine reserve. (11 pages)
    GIST: Goat Island Sustainability Transition Declaration. Concerned scientists see an emerging health risk from an overloaded ecosystem, Jan 2000. (4 pages). 
    Statements of consensus1993 scientific statement of consensus. 1992 World Scientists Warning to Humanity, Troubled waters, a call for action 1998, NAAS 2001 Statement of Consensus on the need for marine reserves. (13 pages)
    Global Programme of Action (GPA) for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities. (3p)
    Marine reserves: a tool for ecosystem management and restoration (executive summary). Pew Oceans Commission report with recommendations for an oceans policy. (5p)
    IUCN recommendations for Protected Areas, Fifth World Parks Congress, Sept 2003. A long wish list of recommendations and actions for protected areas of all kind. Printer-friendly version of the 210 page document. (60p)

    Important tables
    on this web site
    Table of the important elements for life, in the universe, planet, plants, animals. (5 pages)
    Periodic table of elements, with explanation, importance for life and more. Introduction to the structure of atoms, basic chemistry and radioactivity. (10 pages)
    Detailed composition of seawater: a concentration for all the elements known. (1 page)
    Geologic Time Table: the history of life and the planet, with earth maps and pictures. (7 pages)
    Time table of mankind: a summary of the events that shaped the human world. (22 pages)
    further reading Books and references. Most available on loan from the Seafriends Public Library (on this page)
    Internet links Links to related sites on the Internet. (2 pages)
    what's new? A log of recent changes to this section (on this page)

    Note! for best printed results, set your page up with a left margin of 1.5cm (0.6") and right margin of 1.0cm (0.4")
    The whole section covers about 4.5MB, including text, drawings and photographs. Read tips to get most out of this web site.
    For comments, suggestions and improvements, e-mail the author, Floor Anthoni.
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    In this section on conservation, we have brought together the important rules and principles about saving the land and the sea. Because so many people have differing opinions, the information on this web site has been gleaned from many books and other publications. This massive amount of knowledge has been compacted and simplified in order not to waste your time. As such, it is perhaps the only complete overview of the subject, brought together in one place, while being easy to learn. Many diagrams and drawings have been made to enable you to visualise the issues, for ease of understanding and recall. As with other sections on this web site, it is not our intention to give you recipes for life, but more importantly, to give you the ingredients to make your own. Three more sections on this web site are of immediate importance: Ecology (in preparation) makes you understand how populations interact. Oceanography teaches about how the planet works such as circulation, climate, precipitation, productivity and detailing why habitats and ecosystems are found where they are. See also the section on soil. Details of all New Zealand's present marine reserves are found in Marine reserves of New Zealand.

    The human species is unique among all the species on Earth, because it has developed capabilities (through technology) that far exceed what is possible by the advantages passed down through evolution (brain and muscles). As a result, humans have modified the world to suit their needs, assuming in the process, that the human superiority gives them the right to take from other species what it likes, without restriction. This has led to the over development of the biosphere, possibly beyond its capacity to sustain itself, resulting in loss of life and species, while also indirectly threatening human existence. We believe that human nature is not just one of greed and pillage, but one equally of compassion for others, including other species. We also believe that we have enough knowledge, foresight and discipline not only to avert disaster, but also to manage this unique planet while providing happiness and dignity for all. However, in the past century we have put systems in place that have cultivated our short-term outlook, immediate satisfaction and a selfish attitude. It has produced a world, which paradoxically, has gained some but lost other qualities, making people long for true humanity while lavishing in the emptiness of the wealth that replaced it, as expressed eloquently by George Carlin:

    George Carlin's paradox of our times
    (Lat: para= against; doxa=opinion; contrary to opinion) 

    The paradox of our time in history is that:
    We have taller buildings but shorter tempers; wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints. 
    We spend more, but have less;  We  buy more but enjoy less; 
    We have bigger houses and smaller families, more conveniences, but less time;
    We have more degrees, but less sense, more knowledge, but less judgement; 
    More experts, yet more problems, more medicine, but less wellness.
    We drink too much, smoke too much, spend too recklessly, laugh too little, drive too fast, get too angry, stay up too late, get up too tired, read too little, watch TV too much and pray too seldom.
    We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values. 
    We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often.
    We've learned how to make a living, but not a life, we've added years to life not life to years.
    We've been all the way to the moon and back, but have trouble crossing the street to meet a new neighbor. 
    We conquered outer space but not inner space. We've done larger things, but not better things. 
    We've cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul.  We've conquered the atom, but not our prejudice. 
    We write more, but learn less. We plan more, but accomplish less. We've learned to rush, but not to wait. 
    We build more computers to hold more information to produce more copies than ever, but we communicate less and less.

    These are the times of fast foods and slow digestion; big men and small character; steep profits and shallow relationships.
    These are the days of two incomes but more divorce, fancier houses but broken homes.
    These are days of quick trips, disposable diapers, throwaway morality, one-night stands, overweight bodies and pills that do everything from cheer to quiet, to kill.
    It is a time when there is much in the show window and nothing in the stockroom. 
    A time when technology can bring this letter to you, and a time when you can choose either to share this insight or to just hit delete.

    Remember, spend some time with your loved ones, because they are not going to be around forever.
    Remember, say a kind word to someone who looks up to you in awe, because that little person soon will grow up and leave your side.
    Remember, to give a warm hug to the one next to you, because that is the only treasure you can give with your heart and it doesn't cost a cent.
    Remember, to say "I love you" to your partner and your loved ones, but most of all mean it.  A kiss and an embrace will mend hurt when it comes from deep inside of you.
    Remember to hold hands and cherish the moment for someday that person will not be there again.

    Give time to Love, give time to speak, give time to share the precious thoughts in your mind.

    At the start of the 21st century, humanity is faced with the biggest challenge ever, that of accommodating another 4-6 billion people in as little as 40 years. At the same time, our most precious resources are running out, our agricultural systems are overstressed, and our economic systems at the verge of collapse. Already today, we are experiencing more disasters, more frequently, which at the same time are also more puzzling and longer lasting. The real causes are not difficult to find: human overpopulation, coupled with unrestrained consumption, pollution and waste.

    For effective and lasting solutions, our knowledge of the environment has been lagging behind. Scientists do not understand its basic functioning and limitations. They are literally caught unaware. Despite the appearance of many scientific articles, no progress has been made in the certainty surrounding environmental problems, solutions and management, in over 25 years. Many articles are in fact only guesswork and philosophical in nature. As a result, we deal with problems by plastering over their cracks, rather than by curing them and attacking their causes, let alone preventing them by foresight. Conservation is no longer an option; it has become necessity.

    Not only has it become important to better look after ourselves, but being dependent on the services provided by a shrinking environment, we are also obliged to look after some 10 million other species, who together define what Earth looks like and how it works. The ways conservation has been defined over the years, is indicative of our ignorance and reluctance to make room for those other species on which we ultimately depend. Here are some of the attempts at defining conservation, and of solving our problems.

    IUCN (World Conservation Union), 1980: The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while retaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. 

    Resource Management Act New Zealand (1993): Managing the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources in a way, or at a rate, which enables people and communities to provide for their social, economic, and cultural wellbeing and for their health and safety, while:
    • sustaining the potential of natural and physical resources (excluding minerals) to meet the reasonably foreseeable needs for future generations;
    • safeguarding the life-supporting capacity of air, water, soil, and ecosystems; and
    • avoiding, remedying, or mitigating andy adverse effects of activities on the environment;
    • maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment;
    • maintaining biodiversity;
    • exploiting at ecologically sustainable optimum yields;
    • protecting Maori taonga.

    National Resource council, USA 1994. Priorities for coastal ecosystem science:
    • develop biological indicators
    • in-situ observation and remote sensing
    • study material fluxes in watersheds
    • study how ecosystems work
    • restore damaged ecosystems
    • computer modelling
    • more scientists, more money, more networking, direct advice to the President.

    United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth Summit 1992, Rio de Janeiro
    While past conservation efforts were aimed at protecting particular species and habitats, the Convention recognizes that ecosystems, species and genes must be used for the benefit of humans. However, this should be done in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity. The Convention aims to achieve:
    • The conservation of biodiversity
    • Sustainable use of the components of biodiversity
    • Sharing the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way

    New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy, March 2000.
    • maintain and restore a full range of New Zealand's habitats and ecosystems
    • maintain the genetic resources of our important introduced species, which provide much of the foundation for our economy
    • enhance community guardianship of our indigenous species and where they live, and promote co-ordinated community action to bring species extinction to a halt

    New Zealand Environment 2010 strategy
    In 1995 the New Zealand Government adopted the 'Environment 2010 Strategy' which is a strategic overview of how we deal with environmental issues. Its agenda for action is to:
    • Integrate environmental, economic and social policy.
    • Establish a coherent framework of law.
    • Sharpen the policy tools.
    • Build up the information base.
    • Promote education for the environment.
    • Involve people in decision making.

    As you can see, our concept of conservation has been changing gradually, from a human-centred position to one that reluctantly makes room for 'unimportant' species. However, the reality of the situation has not sunk in, as can be inferred from the NZ Biodiversity Strategy. Notice also that no word was said about reducing human populations and their spreading, about controlling economic growth and wanton wasting, and living within a smaller footprint. One could frankly say that that people have no idea of what is needed.

    In writing this large section about conservation, I came across a large volume of often opposing ideas. What struck me, is our obsession with wanting to know more and more detail, as shown above. The following allegory may illustrate my misgivings:

    Two thugs, named Technology and Profit are bashing a victim named Nature in the street. Two bystanders, named Morality and Science, are watching. "So what are you doing about it?", asks Morality. "I'll have to know more about the victim", says Science, "We need to know how far we can go before she becomes disfigured permanently. We don't want her to die, but neither do we need to stop. Using a stick instead of that chain, would help already, and gagging her to muffle her screams would make the situation more comfortable".

    Those who think this allegory is accurate, stand closer to a solution than those who think it is not. Conservation is not really about nature or the environment, but all about humans. Control humans, and you'll control the problems. Paying attention to the victim leads to plaster-solutions, whereas paying attention to the thugs leads to lasting solutions.
    The nature of the problem is further illustrated by an almost complete absence of scientific data. Many scientific articles have been published, but as an indictment of true science, they are all based on opinion, one reciting another. In this way myths are born and propagated, much like UFOlogy or scientology. It is therefore unavoidable that this large section on conservation sometimes leaves the strict scientific path, to enter the rather boggy morass of the humanities and philosophy. In doing so, I have tried to be incisive, calling a spade a spade while exposing myths and fallacies. In the process, refreshingly new ideas have surfaced.

    In the article about resource management, we'll define and try to understand what a resource is, how it behaves and how its use is expected to accelerate. We'll examine how nature invented strategies for resilience and sustainability, and how populations are stabilised. We'll introduce some relevant techniques for solving problems, which lead to management strategies for managing resources.

    In the article about biodiversity, we'll investigate how diversity came about and how ecosystems function. Already for many millennia, but critically in recent years, species have been disappearing because of the spread of the human species and consequent destruction or change of natural habitat. Not only do people have the responsibility of maintaining the lives of other humans, but also of all those creatures still alive today. People depend on the services provided by the functioning of a healthy environment.  Marine biodiversity is difficult to understand, without also understanding the differences between land and sea. It shows that the sea is a totally different world, requiring a different approach to conservation. A separate document stresses the differences further between the main biorealms of this planet. By looking at the combined effects of habitat loss and loss of species, we discover that mankind is digging a deep hole for itself, prescribing for itself what it did to other creatures. The mathematics of scarcity attempt to explain this.

    The article about conservation brings all elements together that are important for understanding conservation and for creating successful protected areas. It deals with the benefits, dilemmas and obstructions of conservation, and how to go about saving a species, a spot or regulating an activity. It also deals with the spiritual dimensions of conservation.

    Marine mammals protection is an area already attracting ample interest worldwide, but some aspects have been neglected, reason for some incisive and controversial analysis.

    A whole article has been devoted to aspects of marine reserves, their benefits, but more importantly, why so many don't work. Having seen the management of fisheries fail everywhere in the world, people are seeking refuge in the marine reserve concept, having false expectations. Attention is also paid to the selection and design of marine reserves.

    Conservation legislation is appearing everywhere in the world as a weapon to salvage nature, but essential mistakes are made here too. Environmental litigation is rapidly becoming the number one source of earnings for lawyers, placing a high burden on the economy. Inappropriate legislation is rife and does not appear to make any practical difference to nature.

    Finally the situation in New Zealand is discussed in relation to the above.

    The topics of whaling, fishing, soil erosion, effluent discharge, chemical pollution, ballast water, poisonous plankton and habitat loss are so large that they warrant their own sections, to be completed in due time.

    Much effort has gone towards describing all existing marine reserves in New Zealand, while also subjecting these to healthy criticism. In the end, it is not important what mistakes we have made, but how we can learn from them to do better in the future. The details of all New Zealand marine reserves have their own large section (see marine reserves index).

    Conservation has been a subject about which everyone has an opinion. Much has been written, and as the situation develops further, the environment may well become a main focus and activity in the economy. The purpose for writing this large section, was to bring all important aspects together, and to incisively expose myths and fallacies. If conservation was once an option, it has become a necessity today, and tomorrow an unbearable burden. Only by being extremely smart, can humanity bring about lasting and affordable solutions. This section aims to teach our children and decisionmakers about the seriousness of the situation, in such a way that it can be grasped in its totality, allowing each to arrive at his own conclusions and actions.

    Read this section carefully because it has been written in a compact way, revealing a wealth of information, thoughts and processes, systematically and in a small space. Good luck. By reading this, you have already distinguished yourself from the vast majority.

    For suggestions and comments, please e-mail the author, Floor Anthoni

    Further reading

    References in blue are available from the Seafriends Library

    Bailey, James A: Principles of wildlife management. 1984. John Wiley. 
    Ballantine, W J: Marine reserves for New Zealand. 1991. Leigh marine Reserve Publication.
    Ballantine, W J: Principles & dynamics of marine reserves. Volumes 1, 2, 3. Leigh Marine Lab, Univ Auckland. 1999. A rich and detailed collection of papers and ideas supporting the marine reserve concept.
    Bates, Marston: The forest and the sea. 1980

    Costin, A b & Frith, H J (eds): Conservation.1971.
    Daily, Gretchen C. (editor): Nature's services - societal dependence on natural ecosystems. 1997 Island Press.
    Darling, Frank Fraser: Wilderness and Plenty. 1969.
    Davis, Peter and Judith Hodge: The Little NZ Green Book. 1991.
    Dorst, Jean: Before nature dies. 1970. Collins. Ecological accounts of man's onslaught on nature.
    Earll, R C: The Seasearch Habitat Guide. 1992.
    Eberhart-Phillips, Jason: Plagues on our doorstep - the threat of infectious disease in New Zealand. 1999. Tandem Press.
    ECO: Environment & Conservation Organisations of NZ. Publications: Seaviews - Marine ecosystems management obligations & opportunities. conference proceedings Feb 1998.
    Erickson, Jon: Dying planet - the extinction of species. 1991
    Fiedler, Peggy & Subodh K Jain (eds): Conservation biology, the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management. 1992. Chapman & Hall
    Goldsmith, F B and A Warren: Conservation in Progress.(UK). 1993.
    Gribbin, John: The climatic threat. What's wrong with our weather?. 1978. Fontana.
    Gribbin, John: Future worlds. 1979 Abacus.
    Gribbin, John: Our changing planet. 1979 Abacus,
    Gribbin, John: Hothouse Earth, the Greenhouse Effect & Gaia. 1990.
    Hayter, Teresa. Exploited Earth - Britain's aid and the environment. 1989. Earthscan Publ.
    Helvarg, David: Blue frontier - saving America's living seas. Freeman Co, 2001.
    Hinrichsen, Don: Our common seas: coasts in crisis. 1990 Earthscan.
    Iudicello, Suzanne et al: Fish, Markets and Fishermen: the economics of overfishing. Island Press, 1999.
    Johnston, R J (ed NZ Geographical Society): Society and environment in New Zealand. 1974. Whitcombe & Tombs.
    Ketchum, Bostwick H (ed).: The water's edge: Critical problems of the coastal zone (workshop MIT). 1972 Colonial Press.
    King, Alexander & Bertrand Schneider: The first global revolution.
    Kingsford, Micael & Christopher Battershill (eds): Studying temperate marine environments, a handbook for ecologists. 1998. Canterbury Univ Press.
    Kramer, Brian and Todd Nachowitz, Nona Morris: Lessons from Leigh, an investigation into the spread of the marine reserve concept. 1999. Examines socio-economic impacts of the Marine Reserve at Leigh, and the spread of the "concept" of marine reserves throughout NZ and the rest of the world. Opinions of visitors and business owners are gained to examine overall beliefs. Bibliography.
    Leggett, Jeremy: Global warming: the Greenpeace report. 1990 Oxford.
    Leigh Laboratory Publications: Marine Reserve Survey. (A M AYLING). 1978.
      Cape Rodney to Okakari Point Marine Reserve (Gordon & Ballantine). 1976.
    Lemay, Michele H and Lynne Zeitlin Hale: Coastal resources management. 1989 Kumarian
    Loftas, Tony: The Last Resource: Man's exploitation of the Oceans. 1972
    McKibben, Bill: The End of Nature. 1990 Anchor Books Doubleday.
    Mellanby, Kenneth: Pesticides and Pollution. 1967.
    Ministry for the Environment (MfE) publications: Setting course for a sustainable future. Dec 1999. Parliamentary Commission report.
    Mungal, Constance & Digby J McLaren: Planet under stress, the challenge of global change (1990)
    Myers, Norman: The sinking ark. 1979 Pergamon.
    National Research Council publications: Priorities for coastal ecosystem science. 1994 National Academy.
    The Nature Conservancy publications: Katrina Brandon, K H Redford, S E Sandersen. Parks in Peril, people, politics and protected areas. 1998. Island Press.
    Nature Conservation Council: The Red Data Book of NZ. 1981.
    NZ Conservation Authority: Marine Conservation and Wildlife Protection. 1992
    Norse E (ed): Global marine biodiversity, a strategy for building conservation into decision making. Island Press. 1993
    Pearce, David & Anil Markandya & Edward B Barbier: Blueprint for a green economy. 1990. Earthscan Publ.
    Ponting, Clive: A green history of the world - the environment and the collapse of great civilizations. 1991 Penguin Books.
    Rattray Taylor, Gordon: The biological timebomb. 1969. 256p. Granada Publishing. About the new biological possibilities and their consequences: test-tube babies, choice of sex, semi-artificial man, eternal youth, mood control, tinkering with heredity, creating life, etc.
    Rattray Taylor, Gordon: The doomsday book. 1972.
    Rattray Taylor, Gordon: Rethink. 1974.
    Ray, Dixy Lee & Lou Guzzo: Trashing the planet. How science can help us deal with acid rain, depletion of ozone and nuclear waste. 1990. Regnery Gateway. (read this book with guidance)
    Rienow, Robert & Leona Train Rienow: Moment in the sun. 1965 Christian Science. (read this book critically)
    Rifkin, Jeremy: Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World. 1989 Bantam.
    Schell, Jonathan: The Fate of the Earth. 1982.
    Seymour, John & Herbert Girardet: Blueprint for a green planet. How you can take practical action today to fight pollution. 1987. Dorling Kindersley.
    Starke, Linda: Signs of hope. 1990 Oxford.
    Thorne-Miller, Boyce & John G Catena: The living ocean, understanding and protecting marine biodiversity. 1991 (Friends of the Earth). Island Press.
    UNEP: Global biodiversity assessment, a summary for policy-makers. 1995. Cambridge Univ Press.
    Van Dyke, John & Durwood Zaelke, Grant Hewison (eds): Freedom for the seas in the 21st century. Ocean governance and environmental harmony. 1993. Island Press / Greenpeace
    Vittachi, Anuradha: Earth Conference One, sharing a vision for our planet. 1989. New Science Libr.
    Ward, Barbara and Rene Dubois: Only one Earth. 1973 Pelican.
    Western, David & Mary Pearl (eds): Conservation for the twenty-first century. 1989. Oxford Press.
    Whale & Dolphin Conservation Society: Whale Sanctuary, first International Symposium. 1994.
    Whittow,  John: Disasters, the anatomy of environmental hazards. 1980. Pengui Books
    World Resources Institute: World resources 1990-91. A guide to the global environment. 1990. Oxford Univ Press.
    World Watch Institute publications.
      116. Abandoned seas, reversing the decline of the oceans. Peter Webber. 1993.
      120. Net loss: fish, jobs and the marine environment. Peter Webber. 1994.
      141. Losing strands in the web of life: vertebrate declines and the conservation of biological diversity. John Tuxill. 1998. WW Inst
      142. Rocking the boat: conserving fisheries and protecting jobs. Anne Platt McGinn. 1998
      143. Beyond Malthus: sixteen dimensions of the population problem. Lester R Brown et al. 1998
      145. Safeguarding the health of oceans. Anne Platt McGinn. 1999.
      State of the world 2000, on progress toward a sustainable society. 2000. Worldwatch Inst.
      Vital signs 2000, the environmental trends that are shaping our future. Lester R Brown et al. 2000. Worldwatch Inst.
      150. Underfed and overfed: the global epidemic of malnutrition. Gary Gardner, Brian Halweil. 2000. WW Inst.

    Science for Conservation reports (SfC) from the Dept of Conservation, NZ. Since 1997. A very good source of mostly terrestrial information.
    DOC Research & Development Series (with DoC Science Internal Series reports DSIS) more good and timely information. Note that many consultancy reports to DoC are not available although they and the work they represent have been paid for by the public purse. Yet many decisions have been based on them.

    What's new?

    20030923 - Lessons from Leigh: the good, the bad and the ugly. Learn from past mistakes. (23p)
    20030731 - Marine science exposed: inadequate marine science aimed at proving marine reserves. Shocking. (33p)
    20030705 - Ecosystem based management (ESB) added to resource management.
    20030417 - Spillout effect explained and quantified from economies of exploitation. Larval dispersal.
    20030412 - Myths and Fallacies exposed in speeches and newspaper articles. (9 pp)
    20030312 - Frequently Asked Questions (and straight answers) about marine conservation and reserves. (24 pp)
    20030308 - Hauraki Gulf Marine Survey 1993  investigates plankton bloom related ecological changes. (20 pp)
    20030306 - The disappearing fish act, an article reporting massive plankton-related fish losses in 1992. (7 pp)
    20030130 - Some thoughts about the memory of an ecosystem as an important part of its resilience.
    20021208 - Modified an overview of the biorealms of Earth.(4 pp) and minor changes.
    20021206 - Completed the chapter on Marine Conservation (29 pp).
    20021205 - Transcript of speeches during the opening of NZ's first marine reserve in Leigh, May 1977.(14 pp)
    20011119 - Changes, corrections and suggestions from Mrs M Borich applied to threats.
    20011108 - Summary of threats to the planet: humans, atmosphere, land and sea. (22 pp)
    20011026 - Story of the extinct dodo and decline of a native tree of Mauritius added.
    20011011 - Conservation principles finished. (33 pp)
    20010927 - Comparison of biorealms finished. (4 pp)
    20010927 - Biodiversity completed. (35 pp)  Started to write the conservation article.
    20010912 - Resource management completed (27 pp). Science, technology and human nature completed (36 pp).

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